Sustainable Innovative Systems in Public Transportation and Trolleybus

Sustainable Innovative Systems in Public Transportation and Trolleybus
SUSTAINABILITY
• It is defined as the ability to be permanent.
• The speed at which the resources are used does not exceed the production speed of the resource.
• Sustainable Transportation; Beyond the capacity of the transportation system to renew itself, it is socially justifiable, politically responsible, accountable and economically consistent.
• The sustainability of the Public Transport system; It is directly related to the sustainability of consumed resources.
• When we look at the types of transportation, we see systems that are widely used in fossil fuels and electric energy.
• Oil and CNG is a non-renewable fossil fuel.
• Fossil fuel based transport systems are NOT SUSTAINABLE.
Energy consumed at 100 km (petroleum) (l / passenger 100 km)
Railway 2,5
Highway 5,9
Airline 7,8
Considering the energy consumption, it is observed that the systems that use electric energy are more efficient when we look at the means of transportation. We also note that only% 25 of electricity energy is obtained from renewable sources and is increasing gradually.
• When evaluated by considering environmental impacts, renewable energy use, energy efficiency, economic consistency, Electric Public Transport Systems are considered to be sustainable.

Trolleybus Istanbul
• Trolleybuses serving for many years in Istanbul are put into service at 27 May 1961. 45 100 mileage and 1968 trolley bus fleet 101 in the year, fully 'iTT workers' production 'Tosun' joined the vehicle number is 101. Tosun provides 16 door number for XNUMX year.
• Trolleybuses which are frequently on the roads due to power outages and interruptions are removed from 16 in July 1984 because they block traffic. The vehicles are sold to the General Directorate of ESHOT (Electricity, Water, Gas, Bus and Trolleybus) of Izmir Municipality. The 23 annual Istanbul adventure of the trolleybuses thus ends.

Trolleybus Izmir
• In the year of 1954, the Izmir trolleybus started to serve the people of 1954 and 1992 trolleybus 9-138.

TRAMBUS
• Trolleybus systems were first introduced into 19. It became widespread in the 1930 years.
• Afterwards, it has been replaced in many cities by diesel buses due to the cheaper (?) And partly by tram systems due to passenger capacity.
• Due to the oil crisis in the 1970s and the increasing dependence on fossil fuels and the negative effects on the environment and human health, many cities have preserved the existing Trolleybus lines.
• To the present; Tools and systems have been improved with modern technologies, and lines have been expanded. In some cities, it is planned to re-implement the old trolleybus lines.

TRAMBUS, BASIC FEATURES
• Highway based,
• Tire wheel, Electric drive,
• Environmentally friendly,
• 8,000 passenger / hour / direction line capacity,
• 225 vehicle capacity,
• 12, 18, 25 m tool options

WHY TRAMBUS?
• It is the most efficient public transport mode on the highway.
• It is efficient and environmentally sensitive because it uses electrical energy. It does not produce harmful emissions.
• Due to the fact that the increase in the demand amount is different, the vehicle prices are getting cheaper.
• High quality external body and electronic control systems.
• Its operation is profitable and 2 times longer than buses.
• Quiet and relaxing. Low base passenger-friendly.
• Operating and maintenance costs are less than diesel buses.
• Lightweight.
• They are suitable for hybridization. They can work independently with on-board energy storage or generator.
• They are capable of high climbing. They can be operated easily on high slope lines.
• Efficient, high-capacity and high-tech vehicles can travel at high speeds on its own roads.
• In terms of vehicles and routes, the first investment cost is the lowest and shortest applicable time.
• It is an attractive and attractive system which can be accepted quickly with its rapid contribution to the transportation capacity and the environment.
WHY TRAMBUS?
I. For the cost,
For the II.
For the operator,
I. For the cost;
• Does not require significant infrastructure costs.
• Much more efficient in terms of energy per passenger.
• Zero emissions.
• Quiet and safe journey.

II For the Passenger;
• Greener
•Quieter
• Strong yet softer acceleration and braking
• Service Continuity
• Best ride quality
III For the operator;
• High mechanical reliability and efficiency.
• Higher maneuverability
• Long service life.
• No idle motor loss.
• High acceleration and climbing performance
• Lower energy cost

ENERGY SYSTEM
• 17 km long, with a stop 26, 4,5 where the maximum slope is 8 units with a transformer center 25 120 XNUMX as a result of our work as a result of the operation is possible to do business with XNUMX seconds.
• Parameters and results are given on the side. Energy consumption <3kWh / km Most of the energy produced during braking is used by other vehicles!
AIR LINE SYSTEM
• The 107-120 mm2 cross section positive and return conductor is sufficient for many applications.
• In cases where high carrying capacity is required;
- By using additional feeder cables from the subway, the number of transformer centers is optimized, reducing the voyage interval and reaching higher carrying capacities.
• Road lighting and catenary system can be carried on a common mast.

TRAMBUS IN THE WORLD
System .................. ........................... .Araç
Eastern Europe X .64 N ..4.482
Western Europe X 48 UM ..1.893
Eurasian ............... ..................... 189 26.666
North America N ..91 N ..926
South America N ..13 N ..828
Africa .................. ........................ 0 ..0
Australia ........................ ............ 1 60
Asia ..................... ..................... 39 .4.810
Total ............... .................. ..363 ..40.665
TRAMBUS IN EUROPE
System Tools ........................... ...............
Austria ......... .................. ..4 ..131
Belgium ............... ..................... 1 .20
France ............... .................. .6 ..199
Germany ............ .................. .3 ..104
Greece ......... .................. 2 ..350
Italy .................. ............... ..14 .388
Netherlands ............ .................. 1 ..48
Norway ............ .................. ..1 ..15
Portugal ............ .................. 1 ..20
Switzerland ............ .................. .15 .618
Total ............ .................. 48 .1.893
TREND IN THE WORLD

SUSTAINABILITY & TRAMBUS
• The graph shows an upward trend in diesel fuel and electrical energy over the years. The upward trend of diesel fuel is 1.6 times faster than electrical energy.

• The graphic below shows the advantageous point of use for Trambus and diesel fuel systems.
• The head-to-head point is declining due to the increase in diesel fuel prices, the decrease in Trambus prices and the operating costs resulting from the use of electricity.
• Trambus systems are more advantageous than diesel buses if more than 48.000 km / year travel is made considering the initial investment and fuel costs

In this study, the data of 2002 in the trolleybus system 26. around the year with diesel buses
but the data in 2006 is 21. yearly. This
the period of capture of the graph and the head of each country and the region where the line will be established and
will vary according to the specific conditions of the line. In a similar study conditions in Turkey
the equilibrium point of the trolley bus and diesel bus systems will occur earlier
It is believed. In a study conducted in the 15 year with the income from energy savings
It is estimated that the system will pay off itself.

ECONOMICS
Assumptions:
Yılda Considering the fact that 100.000 km is done in both systems, equal number of passengers is carried over in 8 years.
Fiyat The increase in diesel prices shown in the chart on the previous page should not be avoided.
DikkateTo consider the maintenance and environmental effects, Trambus will be more advantageous.
Note: Infrastructure costs are not considered.

• When we take into account the Infrastructure Costs including 1km road, 1 km Overhead line, 18m Vehicle (Bus / Trambus), Electric and Control system, the result is as follows. The vehicles have been accepted to make 100.000 km per year.
• Infrastructure cost: 1.100.000 TL / km.
• The maintenance costs for both systems are assumed to be the same.
15 Cost per year:
Bus: 3.687.000 TL
Trolleybus: 3.718.000 TL
• This result is consistent with the study conducted in 2002 and 2006.
• Considering the maintenance costs and economic life, it is clear that the trolleybus system will be more advantageous.
• Economical life 25 is accepted as a year in trolleybus systems.
• The Colombia-Bogota TransMilenio line, which is the most widely used Metrobus (BRT) line in the world, and the operating data of the trolleybus lines in the city of Ecuador-Quito are compared with bus and hybrid-diesel bus data using compressed natural gas (CNG). Diez and colleagues who performed the study gave the table in the article they published.

• In an article published by Diez et al., The Bogota TransMilenio Metrobus Line (Daily 1.8 Million Passenger Carryover) is used for buses with different technologies instead of existing diesel buses.

Trolleybus systems fed by hydroelectric power plants are zero emission systems. CO2 emits greenhouse gas emissions in systems using energy produced from fossil fuels, but very little compared to internal combustion engines.

4E: When we consider ENERGY, ECOLOGY, ECONOMY and EVENT, electric public transportation systems, in particular TRAMBUS system, can be considered as SUSTAINABLE systems according to fossil fuel systems.

Source: Arif EMECEN

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About Levent Ozen
Every year, high-speed rail sector, the European leader in the growing Turkey. Investments in railways, which take this speed from high-speed trains, continue to increase. In addition, with the investments made for transportation in the city, the stars of many of our companies making domestic production shine. It is proud that Turkish high-speed tren national train ”production has been started in addition to the companies producing domestic tram, light rail and subway vehicles. We are very happy to be in this proud table.

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  1. they should not sit at the local but general management seat.

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