Today in History: Montreux Straits Convention Signed

Montro Straits Agreement Signed
Montro Straits Agreement Signed

July 20 is the 201nd (202rd in leap years) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. There are 164 days left until the end of the year.

Railways

  • 20 July 1940 The first train from Baghdad reached Haydarpaşa.
  • 20 July 1994 TCDD and IETT employees supported the protest action by protesting the price hike under the leadership of the platform of Türk-İş, Disk, Hak-İş and public employees and democratic mass organizations.
  • 20 July 2017 The first voyage in the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway Line took place with the participation of the ministers of the country 4

Olaylar 

  • 1402 – Battle of Ankara: The war between the Ottoman Empire Sultan Yıldırım Bayezid and the Great Timur Empire Sultan Timur in Ankara's Çubuk Plain resulted in Timur's victory.
  • 1871 - British Columbia joins the Canadian Federation.
  • 1881 – Sioux Tribe leader Sioux Tribe leader, the last Native Tribal Chief to fight against the United States armies, surrenders.
  • 1903 - Ford produces its first car.
  • 1916 – World War I: Russian soldiers occupied the Ottoman Empire's Gümüşhane city.
  • 1921 - Air mail service begins between New York and San Francisco.
  • 1936 – The Montreux Straits Convention was signed.
  • 1940 - Denmark left the United Nations.
  • 1944 – II. World War II: An assassination attempt is made on Adolf Hitler under the leadership of a Colonel of the German Army (Claus von Stauffenberg), which ends in failure.
  • 1948 – Nation Party was founded.
  • 1949 – Israel and Syria sign a peace treaty after 19 months of war.
  • 1951 – King Abdullah I of Jordan was killed by a Palestinian during Friday prayers.
  • 1964 – Vietnam War: Vietcong troops attack the Cái Bè District in the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam: killing 11 South Vietnamese military personnel and 30 civilians, including 40 children.
  • 1965 – Prime Minister Suat Hayri Ürgüplü, returning from his visit to Moscow, announced that the Soviet Union would provide economic aid to Turkey.
  • 1969 - For the first time in history, a manned spacecraft reaches the Moon. Apollo 11 landed on the lunar surface. Astronaut Neil Armstrong was also the first person to set foot on the Moon.
  • 1973 - Palestinian militants hijacked a Japanese Airlines passenger plane bound for Japan from Amsterdam and landed it in Dubai.
  • 1974 – Cyprus Operation: The Turkish Armed Forces' Treaty of Guarantee III. The beginning of the military operation carried out pursuant to the article.
  • 1975 – The Aegean Army was established and Gen. Turgut Sunalp was appointed to the Aegean Army Command.
  • 1976 – Viking 1 landed on Mars after an 11-month voyage and began transmitting photos to Earth.
  • 1980 – The United Nations Security Council decided by a 14-0 vote that member states should not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
  • 1984 - Penthouse magazine published her nude photos, Miss America pageant officials asked Vanessa Williams to return her crown.
  • 1994 – Fragments of comet Shoemaker Levy 9 crashed into Jupiter.
  • 1996 – Spain: ETA drops a bomb on an airport; 35 people died.
  • 2001 – London Stock Exchange went public.
  • 2002 – 25 people died in a fire in a discotheque in Lima (Peru).
  • 2005 - Canada becomes the fourth country to allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2007 – Israel released 255 pro-Fatah detainees, including Abdurrahim Malluh, one of the leaders of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), in support of Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas after the Gaza Strip fell to Hamas.
  • 2009 – The trial of 56 defendants, including retired Gen. Şener Eruygur and Hurşit Tolon, started in the Ergenekon case. Relatives of the disappeared and İHD members demanded that the defendants be tried for disappearances and unsolved murders.
  • 2010 – The case regarding the murder of DİSK Founding Chairman Kemal Türkler was resumed. The case, which started after the Court of Cassation overturned the acquittal of the accused Ünal Osmanağaoğlu, was dropped on 1 December 2010 on the grounds of the statute of limitations.
  • 2015 – Suruç attack: 34 people were killed and more than 100 people were injured in a suicide bomb attack in the Suruç district of Şanlıurfa.
  • 2016 – After the military coup attempt in Turkey, a three-month state of emergency was declared with the recommendation of the National Security Council and the decision of the Council of Ministers.

births 

  • 356 BC – Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia and the greatest Emperor in history (d. 323 BC)
  • 1304 – Francesco Petrarch, Italian humanist and poet (d. 1374)
  • 1519 – IX. Innocentius, Pope (d. 1591)
  • 1754 – Destutt de Tracy, French philosopher and pioneer of ideology (d. 1836)
  • 1774 – Auguste de Marmont, French general and nobleman (d. 1852)
  • 1785 – II. Mahmut, 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1839)
  • 1822 – Gregor Mendel, Austrian scientist and priest (d. 1884)
  • 1847 – Max Liebermann, German painter and graphic artist (d. 1935)
  • 1864 – Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Swedish poet and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1931)
  • 1873 – Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian aviator (d. 1932)
  • 1901 – Vehbi Koç, Turkish industrialist and businessman (d. 1996)
  • 1916 – Temel Karamahmut, Turkish motion picture director, screenwriter and actor (d. 1963)
  • 1919 – Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer and explorer (d. 2008)
  • 1924 – Lola Albright, American actress and singer (d. 2017)
  • 1924 – Tatyana Lioznova, Russian film director (d. 2011)
  • 1925 – Jacques Delors, French economist and politician
  • 1925 – Frantz Fanon, French philosopher (d. 1961)
  • 1927 – Lüdmila Alekseyeva, Russian writer, historian, and human rights activist (d. 2018)
  • 1932 – Otto Schily, German politician
  • 1933 - Cormac McCarthy, American writer
  • 1934 – Aliki Vuyuklaki, Greek actress (d. 1996)
  • 1935 – Sleepy LaBeef, American gospel-rock singer, songwriter, composer, musician, and actor (d. 2019)
  • 1938 – Aslan Abashidze, politician, citizen of the Soviet Union, Georgia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara
  • 1938 – Deniz Baykal, Turkish lawyer, politician and former Chairman of the CHP
  • 1938 – Natalie Wood, American actress (d. 1981)
  • 1942 – Aysan Sümercan, Turkish theater and film actress
  • 1943 – Chris Amon, New Zealand speedway driver (d. 2016)
  • 1946 – Randal Kleiser, American film producer and director
  • 1947 – Gerd Binning, German physicist
  • 1948 - Carlos Santana, Mexican musician
  • 1948 – Ramiz Azizbeyli, Azerbaijani actor
  • 1954 – Keith Scott, Canadian musician
  • 1954 – Salih Zeki Colak, Turkish soldier
  • 1957 - Donna Dixon, American actress
  • 1963 – Paula Ivan, Romanian former athlete
  • 1964 – Chris Cornell, American musician and vocalist (d. 2017)
  • 1964 – Melda Onur, Turkish journalist and politician
  • 1967 – Giorgi Kvirikashvili, Georgian politician
  • 1968 – Kool G Rap, American rapper, poet, screenwriter, writer, and producer
  • 1968 – Hami Mandıralı, Turkish football player
  • 1969 – Josh Holloway, American actor
  • 1971 – Sandra Oh, Korean-Canadian actress
  • 1973 – Omar Epps, American actor and musician
  • 1973 – Haakon, only son of King Harald V and Queen Sonja, and heir to the Norwegian throne
  • 1975 – Ray Allen, American basketball player
  • 1975 – Judy Greer is an American actress.
  • 1975 – Yusuf Şimşek, Turkish football player and coach
  • 1977 – Kiki Musampa, Dutch football player of Congolese descent
  • 1978 - Willie Solomon, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Miklós Fehér, Hungarian football player (d. 2004)
  • 1980 – Gisele Bündchen, Brazilian model
  • 1981 – Hanna Yablonskaya, Ukrainian playwright and poet (d. 2011)
  • 1988 – Gazapizm, Turkish rapper
  • 1988 - Julianne Hough, an American dancer, singer, and actress
  • 1989 – Yuliya Gavrilova, Russian fencer
  • 1990 – Lars Unnerstall, German goalkeeper
  • 1991 - Alec Burks, American professional basketball player
  • 1993 – Steven Adams, professional basketball player from New Zealand
  • 1993 – Lucas Digne, French national football player
  • 1993 – Atinc Nukan, Turkish football player
  • 1994 – Koray Kaçınoğlu, Turkish-German football player
  • 1994 – Maia Shibutani, American figure skater
  • 1996 - Ben Simmons is an Australian professional basketball player.

Weapon 

  • 1031 – II. Robert, king of France from 996 until his death in 1031 (b. 972)
  • 1109 – Eupraxia Vsevolodovna, consort of the Roman Emperor (b. 1067)
  • 1156 – Toba is the 74th emperor of Japan in the traditional succession order (b. 1103)
  • 1296 – Celaleddin Firuz Halacı, Sultan of Delhi (1290-96) (b. 1220)
  • 1514 – György Dózsa, Hungarian warrior (b. 1470)
  • 1757 – Johann Christoph Pepusch, German composer (b. 1667)
  • 1792 – Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, founder of Wahhabism (b. 1703)
  • 1793 – Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, French sailor (b. 1737)
  • 1816 – Gavrila Derjavin, Russian poet and statesman (b. 1743)
  • 1819 – John Playfair, Scottish scientist and mathematician (b. 1748)
  • 1866 – Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician (b. 1826)
  • 1903 – XIII. Leo, religious leader (Pope) of the Catholic Church (b. 1910)
  • 1908 – Demetrius Vikelas, Greek businessman and writer (b. 1835)
  • 1912 – Andrew Lang, Scottish-born poet, novelist and short story writer who studied anthropology (b. 1844)
  • 1922 – Andrey Markov, Russian mathematician (b. 1856)
  • 1923 – Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary, rebel, and general (b. 1878)
  • 1926 – Feliks Dzerzhinsky, USSR Bolshevik leader and founder of the first intelligence service, the Cheka (b. 1877)
  • 1927 – Ferdinand I, King of Romania (b. 1865)
  • 1937 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian explorer and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (b. 1874)
  • 1942 – Germaine Dulac, French suffragette (b. 1882)
  • 1945 – Paul Valéry, French writer and poet (b. 1871)
  • 1951 – Abdullah I, King of Jordan (b. 1882)
  • 1951 – Wilhelm, Last German Emperor II. Wilhelm's eldest child and heir, and last crown prince of the German Empire and Kingdom of Prussia (b.
  • 1955 – Joaquín Pardavé, Mexican film actor, director, songwriter (b. 1900)
  • 1955 – Kalust Sarkis Gulbenkian, businessman of Armenian descent, citizen of the Ottoman State (b. 1869)
  • 1959 – Musahipzade Celal, Turkish playwright (b. 1868)
  • 1967 – Fikret Muallâ, Turkish painter (b. 1903)
  • 1973 – Bruce Lee, Chinese-American actor and martial arts instructor (b. 1940)
  • 1973 – Robert Smithson, American artist (b. 1938)
  • 1982 – Okot p'Bitek, Ugandan poet and sociologist (b. 1931)
  • 1992 – Mahmut Türkmenoğlu, Turkish politician (b. 1933)
  • 1994 – Paul Delvaux, Belgian surrealist painter (b. 1897)
  • 1995 – Ernest Mandel, Belgian Marxist theorist (b. 1923)
  • 1996 – František Plánička, Czechoslovak former international football player (b. 1904)
  • 2004 – Kamuran Gurun, Turkish diplomat (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Hulki Saner, Turkish screenwriter, director and film producer (b. 1925)
  • 2006 – Gérard Oury, French film director and screenwriter (b. 1919)
  • 2009 – Vedat Okyar, Turkish football player, sports writer and commentator (b. 1945)
  • 2012 – Aron Dolgopolski, Soviet-Israeli linguist (b. 1930)
  • 2013 – Pierre Fabre, French businessman and cosmetologist (b. 1926)
  • 2013 – Helen Thomas, American journalist and reporter (b. 1920)
  • 2014 – Klaus Schmidt, German archaeologist (b. 1953)
  • 2015 – Dieter Moebius, German-Swiss electronic musician (b. 1944)
  • 2017 – Chester Bennington, American rock singer and Linkin Park frontman (b. 1976)
  • 2017 – Marco Aurélio Garcia, Brazilian politician and academic (b. 1941)
  • 2017 – Andrea Jürgens, German musician and singer (b. 1967)
  • 2017 – Claude Rich, French actor and screenwriter (b. 1929)
  • 2017 – Sezer Sezin, Turkish cinema and theater actor (b. 1929)
  • 2019 – Sheila Dikshit, Indian politician (b. 1938)
  • 2019 – Ilaria Occhini, Italian actress (b. 1934)
  • 2020 – Muhammad Aslam, Pakistani politician and lawyer (b. 1947)
  • 2020 – Michael Jamal Brooks, American talk show host, YouTube content creator, author, podcaster, and political analyst (b. 1983)
  • 2020 – Viktor Chijikov, Russian illustrator (b. 1935)
  • 2020 – Ruth Lewis, Roman Catholic nun (b. 1946)
  • 2020 – Jorge Villavicencio, Guatemalan surgeon and politician (b. 1958)
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